Given the impending release of Linux 5. Pitivi The Linux 5. As we've already been closely monitoring the various "-next" development trees in recent weeks of material building up for this next cycle, here is a look at a portion of what's to come for this late kernel.
While the Linux 5. Intel engineers continue working on "Protection Keys for Supervisor" support for the Linux kernel as a feature coming to a future generation of processors presumably Sapphire Rapids. The initial users of this PKS support will be helping to protect persistent memory as well as adding safeguards to Trusted Keys within the Linux kernel. Just over one week ago Intel released the Media Driver They have also now released their adjoining Media SDK KDE developers have been busy not only putting the finishing touches on the soon to be released Plasma 5.
As we approach the end of the year this driver still hasn't been mainlined yet but a new revision was sent out on Friday. Adding to the growing list of Mesa Following yesterday's release of Wine 5. Just a friendly reminder and last call that if you wanted to partake in this week's "Oktoberfest" Phoronix Premium special, it is ending this weekend. Wine 5. After being in development for more than one year, it looks like with Linux 5. Of the many new features in Linux 5. Given many of the same workloads were negatively impacted by the CPU security mitigations of recent years, here is a look at the current mitigated vs.
While not merged yet, on Friday the latest version was sent out for review.
Not only is the Plasma 5. Since the end of there have been Linux patches surfacing for bringing up the DSA support and now as we roll into the Linux kernel looks to begin making use of the new capabilities. It's finally Zen 3 launch day! It's a virtual event given the ongoing pandemic, but this much anticipated CPU launch is now streaming.
Today perhaps will be the most interesting day since the start of the pandemic With this quarter's Mesa Tencent developers have proposed "DMEMFS" as a virtual file-system with the intent of helping to save system memory on large servers such as in public cloud environments. It looks like for Linux 5. Launched at the start of the year was the Kubuntu Focus as a polished KDE laptop while now it's been succeeded by a second-generation model.
While GIMP 3.Photo by Malcolm Lightbody on Unsplash. As you have seen in a previous articleBtrfs snapshots are a convenient and fast way to make backups. Please note that these articles do not suggest that you avoid backup software or well-tested backup plans. Their goals are to show a great feature of this file system, snapshots, and to inspire curiosity and invite you to explore, experiment and deepen the subject. Read on for more about how to recover your files from Btrfs snapshots.
As you have seen, a Btrfs subvolume, as well as a snapshot, looks like a normal directory. Why not use a Btrfs subvolume for your project, in order to take advantage of snapshots? To create the subvolume, use this command:. However, sudo is still needed to list the subvolumes, and to use the send and receive commands. Now you can start writing your documents.
Btrfs is now the Default Filesystem on Fedora 33
Each day or each hour, or even minute you can take a snapshot just before you start to work:. For better security and consistency, and if you need to send the snapshot to an external drive as shown in the previous article, remember that the snapshot must be read only, using the -r flag. You can recover it from the most recent snapshot, or recover an older version of the file from an older snapshot.
Do you remember that a snapshot appears like a regular directory? You can simply use the cp command to restore the deleted file:.
Incremental backups with Btrfs snapshots
You can recreate the subvolume as seen before, and again, you can simply use the cp command to restore the entire content from the snapshot:. Or you could restore the subvolume by using the btrfs snapshot command yes, a snapshot of a snapshot :.
You can use the cp command even if the snapshot resides on an external drive. For instance:. You can restore an entire snapshot as well. In this case, since you will use the send and receive commands, you must use sudo. In addition, consider that the restored subvolume will be created as read only. Therefore you need to also set the read only property to false :.
The command btrfs subvolume snapshot will create an exact copy of a subvolume in the same device. The destination has to reside in the same btrfs device. In that case you need to take a snapshot and use the send and receive commands.
Has Fedora 33 found a way around the fact that the files in a subvolumes in home cannot be put into the trash bin under Gnome at leastbut instead can only be deleted? That is nice to snapshot but the bin is useful too…. Hi Joe, Deleting a file is putting it into the trash bin.User data is the most important thing on a computer. Changing the default file system is not a change to make casually.
Btrfs will replace ext4 as the default filesystem in Fedora Btrfs is a stable and mature file system with modern features: data integrity, optimizations for SSDs, compression, cheap writable snapshots, multiple device support, and more.
The previous default layout placed constraints on disk usage that can be a difficult adjustment for novice users. Btrfs solves this problem by avoiding it. As a techie, you may have heard of bit rot, and memory bit flips.
Data can be corrupted by a multitude of physical factors, even cosmic rays from the sun! Before an SSD fails outright, often it will return either zeros or garbage, instead of your data. Btrfs safeguards your data with checksums, and performs verification on every read. This enhances crash-safeness. When copying a file, Btrfs does not write new data until you actually change the old data, saving space. Compressing data reduces total writes, saves space, and extends flash drive life.
In many cases, it can also improve performance. Compression can be enabled on an entire file system, or per subvolume, directory, and even per file. You will be able to opt-in to using compression in Fedora Facebook uses Btrfs on millions of machines in production.
They compare its stability to ext4 and XFS another file system available in Fedora. Btrfs detects problems before the hardware fails. The Change is code complete, and has been testable in Rawhide as the default file system since early July. Btrfs has been explicitly supported in Fedora since This is expected to be a transparent change for most users, however it is still significant.
Fedora will ensure we deliver the dependable and reliable experience Fedora users have come to expect. If I want a more condensed answer I use. I checked the disk usage with du but btrfs was storing metadata and quicikly my system was totally full. So I switched back to ext4 after this try some years ago.
Maybe Fedora should warn the user about these commands and the inadequacies of du and other commands to deal with btrfs. The du command has to continue to work properly. Du is a standard command and should not depend on what file system is in use.
Users especially should not have to learn separate commands for each file different file system they might be using. Can you imagine having separate ls, du, find, cd, pwd, etc commands for each of the different files systems: ext2, ext3, ext4, fat, fat32, ntfs, ufs, xfs, etc.
That is the point of the file system abstraction, so that the rest of the system can work properly regardless of which file system you choose. So, if the du command does not work with btrfs it is a serious bug in btrfs. Just one example of BtrFS not working as expected, and there are many more.
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If people say no to these cookies, we do not know how many people have visited and we cannot monitor performance. Red Hat has released Fedora 33 beta, with the finished article expected at the end of this month, as well as version 7. Fedora is therefore always a good place to see what is coming next. What's new in 33? There is excellent documentation here.BTRFS Guide - The Best Desktop File System
One notable change is that Btrfs is now the default file system for desktop editions. The adoption of Btrfs was community driven, according to McGrath. Advantages include snapshotting, support for very large files, SSD awareness, deduplication, and background error correction. That said, the Btrfs wiki notes that the "code base is under heavy development". This component automatically kills the largest process if free memory goes below a critical level.
That is bad, but better than a completely frozen system. Another change is that Fedora 33 provides an IoT variant to an official Fedora edition. The challenge of IoT is not only that the OS needs to be lightweight often it will run containers but also that updates must be automated. Fedora IoT uses rpm-ostree to keep the OS up to date with the latest base OS image, plus additional packages as required. Why is Red Hat releasing a 7. This is the company's answer to the potential conflict between new features and compatibility.
So our solution has been to do a major release every three years and a minor release every six months. We need a place to put new and breaking features in, without disrupting the current install base.Among all the other accepted system-wide changes for Fedora 33the proposal of having Btrfs as the default file system for desktop variants was the most interesting one, which has now been approved.
For laptop and workstation installs of Fedora, we want to provide file system features to users in a transparent fashion. We want to add new features, while reducing the amount of expertise needed to deal with situations like running out of disk space.
But, now that the test has successfully completed and the votes are in favour — the change has been accepted for Fedora 33 release. So, why did Fedora propose this change? Is it going to be useful in any way? Is it a bad move?
How is it going to affect Fedora distributions? As per the proposal, all the desktop editions of Fedora 33, spinsand labs will be subject to this change. So, you should expect the workstation editions to get Btrfs as the default file system on Fedora Now that Btrf is going to be the default file system — let me point out the advantages of having Btrfs as the default file system:. But, overall, it feels like introducing Btrfs as the default file system on Fedora 33 is a useful change.
Red Hat supports Fedora well, in many ways. But Fedora already works closely with, and depends on, upstreams. And this will be one of them. The community has a stake in ensuring it is supported.
Red Hat will never support Btrfs if Fedora rejects it. Fedora necessarily needs to be first, and make the persuasive case that it solves more problems than alternatives.
Feature owners believe it does, hands down. What do you think about this change targeted for Fedora 33 release? Do you like the idea of btrfs file system as the default on Fedora 33? A passionate technophile who also happens to be a Computer Science graduate. You will usually see cats dancing to the beautiful tunes sung by him. Just because btrfs will be the default nothing stops you selecting ext4 or whatever you prefer.
Do Fedora plan on using a gui like Timeshift? Decision was fast-tracked approved, any personal experience was disregarded and all not immediately reproducible bugs ignored. I used it just last year on my root SSD. No RAID or special features. It self-destructed after a couple months.
Rather than trying to flog a failed filesystem, Fedora should instead invest its development capital on something like bcachefs or ZFS on Linux, and let btrfs go the way of reiserfs and die off slowly and quietly.
Please log in again. The login page will open in a new tab. After logging in you can close it and return to this page. Like what you read? Please share it with others.Snapshots are an interesting feature of Btrfs. A snapshot is a copy of a subvolume. Taking a snapshot is immediate. Occupied space will increase alongside the data changes in the original subvolume or in the snapshot itself, if it is writeable.
This is a convenient way to perform backups. A snapshot resides on the same disk where the subvolume is located. You can browse it like a regular directory and recover a copy of a file as it was when the snapshot was performed.
By the way, a snapshot on the same disk of the snapshotted subvolume is not an ideal backup strategy: if the hard disk broke, snapshots will be lost as well.
An interesting feature of snapshots is the ability to send them to another location. The snapshot can be sent to an external hard drive or to a remote system via SSH the destination filesystems need to be formatted as Btrfs as well. To do this, the commands btrfs send and btrfs receive are used. In order to use the send and the receive commands, it is important to create the snapshot as read-only, and snapshots are writeable by default.
Note the -r flag for readonly. Snapshots look like regular subdirectories. You can place them wherever you like. Editors note: Snapshots will not take recursive snapshots of themselves. If you create a snapshot of a subvolume, every subvolume or snapshot that the subvolume contains is mapped to an empty directory of the same name inside the snapshot.
Obviously, subsequent incremental sends will take a shorter time. Another useful feature of snapshots is the ability to perform the send task in an incremental way. In order to perform the send task incrementally, you need to specify the previous snapshot as a base and this snapshot has to exist in the source and in the destination.
Please note the -p option. Once the operation is complete, you can keep the snapshot. But if you perform these operations on a daily basis, you could end up with a lot of them. This could lead to confusion and potentially a lot of used space on your disks. Keep in mind that in order to perform an incremental send you need at least the last snapshot.A logistic regression model allows us to establish a relationship between a binary outcome variable and a group of predictor variables.
It models the logit-transformed probability as a linear relationship with the predictor variables. We are now ready for a few examples of logistic regressions.
The data set has 200 observations and the outcome variable used will be hon, indicating if a student is in an honors class or not. We will purposely ignore all the significance tests and focus on the meaning of the regression coefficients. The output on this page was created using Stata with some editing. What is p here. In other words, the intercept from the model with no predictor variables is the estimated log odds of being in honors class for the whole population of interest.
Writing it in an equation, the model describes the following linear relationship. Now we can relate the odds for males and females and the output from the logistic regression. The intercept of -1. Using the odds we calculated above for males, we can confirm this: log(.
The coefficient for female is the log of odds ratio between the female group and male group: log(1. So we can get the odds ratio by exponentiating the coefficient for female.
Btrfs Coming to Fedora 33
Most statistical packages display both the raw regression coefficients and the exponentiated coefficients for logistic regression models.
The table below is created by Stata. In other words, the odds of being in an honors class when the math score is zero is exp(-9. These odds are very low, but if we look at the distribution of the variable math, we will see that no one in the sample has math score lower than 30. In fact, all the test scores in the data set were standardized around mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10.
So the intercept in this model corresponds to the log odds of being in an honors class when math is at the hypothetical value of zero. How do we interpret the coefficient for math. We will use 54. Then the conditional logit of being in an honors class when the math score is held at 54 isWe can examine the effect of a one-unit increase in math score.